What is war time correction in astrology
We have already taught several batches of students and several of our students are practicing astrology across the Globe. You need not have any knowledge of astrology. All you need is a basic computer or laptop an internet connection and Mike and head phones. So you can learn it from the comfort of your home.
Follow us on:. Go to Application. US Go Premium. PowerPoint Templates. Upload from Desktop Single File Upload. Related Presentations:. Add to Channel. The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: Like it 0. Dislike it 0. Added: August 03, Posting comment Premium member. Do you like good food? Are you generous? Do you love jewellery? Are you ambitious? Do you have foot problems? The questions necessarily involved topics that feature in Sun sign descriptions, so subjects who knew their own sign details could hardly fail to guide the panel to the right answer.
Furthermore, when invited to describe their interests, they could reply at length, when only a small amount of astrological role-playing was needed to provide good clues. For example: "Anything physical attracts me" Aries. In short, the results seem to rely on self-attribution, the tendency for people who believe in sun signs to shift their self-image in the corresponding direction [see next abstract], which can then be picked up by artful questioning.
Indeed, the level of self-attribution, determined by my own questions under less than ideal conditions, successfully predicted the test's outcome for 6 out of 8 hits and 3 out of 4 misses. Sun-sign guessing can be explained by subject selection, self-attribution, and body language. A test is presented of the hypothesis that the relationship between astrological birth sign and personality differences in extraversion and neuroticism as reported by Mayo, White and Eysenck can be explained in terms of self-attribution of personality.
An explanation of the Mayo-White-Eysenck results in terms of attribution theory was essentially verified. One of the most frequent objections raised against statistical research into signs is that only single factors are studied and the numerous other factors allegedly influencing a particular trait are ignored.
The present experiment was designed to meet this objection by taking account of the sign position of Ascendant, Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, and Mars. The polarity and element scores of 24 subjects with extreme scores on the Eysenck Personality Inventory were compared with their E and N scores. The Gauquelins applied statistical teats to tropical sign keywords but found nothing that was significant. The author was familiar with the work of two siderealists of renown, Fagaa and Gleadow, so he decided to test their sidereal sign keywords against the Gauquelin trait word list.
Sidereal signs are a more ancient idea than tropical signs and are still in use in the East. Nevertheless their results weren't positive either. In the author's opinion the keywords ascribed to the sidereal signs by Fagan and Gleadow are useless and should be abandoned by any siderealist still using them. Significant findings clearly do not "prove" anything, they can only add support to a particular hypothesis. I have recently reissued the 4th edition of my book The Astrology of Genius based on 20 years of research.
The chi-square test reveals that the odds of this distribution of Sun signs for Nobel laureates is less than Francoise Gauquelin's response: Sorry to disappoint you, dear Roy, but your book does not reveal a new astrological law. It describes via Nobel laureates a well-known demographic law affecting anybody in Europe, high-level scientists as well as ordinary people, that results in some months having more births than others. The best way to eliminate demographic artifacts consists in comparing the target sample with a sample of ordinary people born in similar economic conditions, geographical area and period of time.
Maybe you will want to do this control without my interference. I would be ready to publish the outcomes of such a control if you take charge of it. In this study I investigated whether there is a correlation between the Sun sign at birth and the life span of humans. Special attention was given to the astrological postulation that people born under the sign of Capricorn live markedly longer than people born under the other signs. To that end the required data were collected from all tombstones of seven cemeteries in the South of the Netherlands.
The dates of birth and death of people were transcribed. Infants that died within half a year after their birth were exciuded. All these data were then run through a statistical computer program. The life span of Capricorns scored below the mean, so the astrological postulation that Capricorns live longest was not supported. In this study the sign positions of the Sun, Mercury, Venus and Mars were compared between psychology students and engineering students.
According to Jungian theory psychology students should be high on Intuition and Feeling Fire and Water signs whereas engineering students should be high on Thinking and Sensing Air and Earth signs. Expectancies were calculated using birth rates per month for the years all students had been born within that period provided by the Central Bureau of Statistics of the Netherlands.
No result was significant. So psychology and engineering students could not be differentiated by their planetary sign positions. Of course any division of frequencies for the twelve signs will show higher and lower values, and astrologers like most people tend to assign meaning to such appealing figures, which in this case are at chance level.
This may explain the discrepancy between astrologers who insist that astrology works and researchers who consistently find that it does not. Guesses were made of the Sun, Moon, and Ascending sign of a large number of people encountered in everyday life, eg in bars, without any research plan or controls. The guesses were afterwards compared to the actual sign as given by the subject.
The guesses were based on the overall likeness between sign and the person's general appearance and behaviour and were not specifically aimed at Sun, Moon or Ascendant. Usually several guesses were made without being told the answer until the end. But sometimes the response was "all wrong, try again", in which case the author kept guessing until he either guessed correctly or gave up. The results were as follows:. The number of subjects is smallest for the Moon because people knew their Moon sign less often than the other two signs. Expectancies were estimated by making a random guess by computer for each subject and then repeating it times.
This gave hit rates of 0. The author briefly considers the effect of self-attribution, unintentional help from the subject's reactions, and recording errors even though he had carefully noted all misses. He concludes that there is a small but significant surplus of hits due to a real capacity to recognise some elements in the horoscope. In other words Sun and Ascending signs are not equally probable, and inflated hit rates could be obtained simply by substituting the most frequent signs for each guess. Unfortunately the author ignores these problems, nor did he record the guessing procedure in each case, so his results cannot be evaluated.
Finally a skilled cold reader could pick the correct sign simply by reciting the signs and watching body language. In short, the results do not support the author's conclusion. In nearly two million people in the USA suffered disabling injuries at work compared with more than 50 million disabling injuries from all causes car accidents, falls, firearms, poisoning, burns, etc. There is no specific astrological factor related to accidents, only a general one involving hard aspects from transitting planets to natal planets, the generally accepted order of decreasing severity being 90, , 0.
The only astrological work dealing with accidents is Charles Carter's The Astrology of Accidents , which looked only at natal planets in cases of accident and ignored transitting planets. In my study the experimental data consisted of the birth dates and accident dates of people in California who had been disabled for at least three months in an accident at work during and had filed a Workers' Compensation claim.
The data was copied at my request from the reports of doctors to whom they had been referred by lawyers presenting their claim. The copyists were told only that it was needed for a statistical study of injury patterns. Cases were excluded if any date was uncertain, if there was more than one injury date, or if the injury was predominantly psychological eg stress or had no definite onset eg lung disease. The sample consisted of English-speaking cases from three independent sources and Spanish-speaking cases mostly Mexicans from a Los Angeles clinic that dealt with Hispanics.
But only astrology seems able to explain why accidents should also peak around 3, 6 and 9 months from the victim's birthday. Also the birth and accident dates were reported to the doctor presumably some time after the accident and may therefore be less than accurate. Similarly the minimum 3-month period off work required for data to be included is suspiciously close to the period between hard aspects. These points were covered in a follow-up study briefly reported by Zip Dobyns and Mark Pottenger in their house journal Mutable Dilemma , Further US data could not be obtained due to new privacy laws.
The Swedish data gave "total non-significance" for aspects between natal and transitting Suns on the day of the accident, although the conjunction was again the strongest. Furthermore in Sweden medical needs are met without having to file a claim, and all but of the accidents were timed, indicating careful reporting. We tested the claim that the Sun's element at birth is related to the psychological functions in Carl Jung's typology, specifically whether the Sun in a Fire sign is related to a dominant Intuition function, Earth to Sensing, Air to Thinking, and Water to Feeling.
Birth dates and scores on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator a personality test that is the standard way to measure the four Jungian functions were available for subjects males, females. A relationship between Jungian typology and astrological elements was therefore not supported. He claimed that, using this theory, photographs of people could be accurately matched to their Sun sign. I had tested similar Sun sign claims before, with negative results, so his claim was hard to believe. The results were almost exactly at chance level. The hit rate showed no tendency to increase with judgement certainty.
These results indicate that the theory as applied by James David has no validity. There seems to be no justification for conducting a more elaborate test. Astrology: is This the Proof? Geoffrey Dean Correlation , The above words headlined a two-page article in the UK Daily Mail of 3 February presenting "the results of an exclusive study that appears to prove your star sign is an accurate indicator of your character". A representative sample of adults had to say which of 12 unidentified personality profiles which were actually Sun sign profiles applied to them.
Six signs chose their own profile more frequently than the other signs chose it. The article suggested this was proof of astrology, but it was wrong because although Scorpios for example chose their profile more frequently than did the other signs, they also chose 9 other profiles as equal to or ahead of Scorpio. Indeed, only Aquarians put their profile in 1st position, which 1 hit in 12 is what we would expect by chance. But even that solitary hit is dubious because Aquarius was rated first by all signs except Taureans, who rated it second.
In the other direction, Gemini was rated last or second-last by ten signs, and even Geminians rated it no higher than sixth. Therefore the hit rate should increase as the Daily Mail profiles got closer to the traditional profiles, which proved to be broadly the case. So the Daily Mail results confirm what critics have long been saying, and astrologers have long been denying, namely that the reason Sun sign profiles are accepted has nothing to do with astrology and everything to do with social desirability, self-attribution, and other effects.
Which did not stop the newspaper's resident astrologer Jonathan Cainer claiming that the study "confirms the relevance of astrology at a time when some folk are a little too keen to dismiss it as an ancient superstition. The notion that the Age of Aquarius is either beginning or is imminent is frequently found in astrological literature. However, there is no agreement on when it begins or how its inauguration is to be calculated. By the normally accepted definition the Age begins when the First Point of Aries in the tropical zodiac precesses either into the equal thirty degree division of the sidereal sign of Aquarius or into the unequal sidereal constellation of Aquarius.
The moment this occurs will depend on exactly where the boundary of this sign or constellation is fixed. Opinion varies considerably from school to school and astrologer to astrologer, as witnessed by the wide variations in Ayanamshas the difference between 0 degrees Aries in the tropical and sidereal zodiacs in use in India and elsewhere. In addition, western astrologers increasingly point to planetary movements in the tropical zodiac to define the beginning of the Age. Includes a referenced list of nearly dates between and that have been proposed mostly by believers for the beginning of the Age of Aquarius.
As part of the author's PhD thesis, a sample of nearly persons obtained by advertisments in a magazine and two newspapers completed the Freiburg Personality Inventory 12 scales and a item questionnaire aimed at verifying astrological claims.
The result was usable responses. The questionnaire included items aimed at verifying aspect meanings given in textbooks. For example, in response to the item "I am really not lucky in love", people with Venus-Saturn aspects should tend to say Yes more than those with Venus-Jupiter aspects.
It was not possible to investigate all aspect pairs, so my items were limited to aspects between the outer planets Jupiter through Neptune and the personal planets Sun through Mars including Ascendant and MC, and to aspects between Sun, Moon, Venus and Mars. The results were uniformly inconsistent. There were no significant differences in unluckiness in love between people with Venus-Saturn and Venus-Jupiter aspects regardless of orb degrees. Nor was there any consistent link with Saturn and Jupiter positions in 5th house love, sexuality or 7th house partners.
Contrary to what the textbooks say, people with Saturn aspects did not feel more lonely, unfortunate, skeptical, unhappy, exploited, or cautious than those without Saturn aspects, even when they had up to four Saturn aspects. Nor was there any link with scores on relevant scales such as Depression on the personality inventory. When the sample was divided in half, responses in the first half that seemed to support Saturn tradition did not replicate in the second half more than expected by chance.
The results for the other planets were just as negative. Conclusion: the self-descriptions of my subjects do not fit the teachings of astrological textbooks. Even with good Jupiter trines they do not feel more sunny than others. Even with bad Saturn squares they do not feel more depressed than others. As a professional astrologer, I recognise that the negative results are a reality. But the evidence of my success in counselling is also a reality. A world in which astrology exists is surely more enjoyable than one without it.
This remains for the moment even true for me! The occurrence of five major aspects conjunction, opposition, square, trine and sextile of orb 5 degrees between Sun, Moon, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn was examined for several groups of eminent professionals totalling 15, cases. When all five aspects were combined the mean excess or deficit of aspects involving planets significant in key sectors was 1.
Overall the occurrence of individually significant results was at chance level. Nor do my results agree with the results of an unpublished study by Dieschbourg. These results, and the negligible agreement between key sector effects and aspect effects, seems to be precisely what would be expected if aspects are without effect.
My results do not seem to support the traditional meanings generally attributed to these aspects by astrological textbooks. An attempt was made to find evidence for relations between traditional aspects and human birth. Gauquelin data on 20, eminent individuals representing 11 professions were subjected to time series analysis, segmenting periods of hypothetical aspect influence together with three preceding and three succeeding time periods of equal duration. The frequencies of births within each time segment were superimposed for each profession and for each of 15 aspects conjunctions, squares and oppositions between Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn.
Mean time series obtained for empirical aspect occurrences were compared with mean time series for equivalent random segments as controls. No indication of an aspect influence was found. The author describes the development of his FAR Frequencies for Aspect Research computer program, which draws graphs showing how the angular separation varies between any two bodies including ascendant, MC, and nodes for any time interval.
Despite having worked for many years with planet and house formulas, he was unprepared for the extreme non-uniformity and thus extreme research hazard that his graphs revealed. Assumptions of uniform motion, even as a first approximation, are on very shaky grounds. Three of his 36 examples are shown below. Distribution of geocentric angular separations measured daily. Left: Mars conjunct Sun is roughly five times more frequent than Mars opposition Sun.
In samples without controls this could be and has been mistaken for an astrological effect. Centre: Venus stays close to the Sun, so Venus-Mars is broadly similar to Sun-Mars but with large additional fluctuations. Right: Abrupt changes in frequency will occur over a small range in angular separation if the sample period is short compared to the period of the planetary pair, as here for Saturn-Uranus. The FAR program provides a visual picture of the non-uniform contacts that can occur between planets and which researchers need to be aware of.
It illustrates one of the many ways in which computers have revolutionised the approach to astrological research by eliminating the need for manual calculations. Graphs like the ones above would have been unthinkable in the s. Another example appears in the next abstract]. The author examines whether the angular separations between the Sun and Uranus could be related to yearly distributions of birth in a way that could bias results.
He calculates by computer the distribution of Sun longitudes for the period when Uranus is retrograde. During this period the only time when Uranus is retrograde is during July-August when the Sun is in Leo, and his plotted numbers confirm that there is indeed a peak around Sun in Leo with a tapering off on both sides. The figure below illustrates the effect for the Gauquelin professionals born during with Uranus retrograde.
The distribution shows a peak with Sun in Leo degrees. The question of the best house system has plagued astrologers for centuries. My study used notable athletes most of them from the Gauquelin Book of Amnerican Charts with non-athletes as controls, all with timed births, whose charts were computer-calculated using Placidus, Koch, and Equal house systems. None showed a significant relationship between athletic achievement and house position, although Placidus did best followed very closely by Koch. Further tests are needed, but as they stand the results indicate that house placement is not a significant chart factor.
Among married couples, do any of the astrological placements of one look like they rule the 7th house of the other? This idea was tested on couples from the second Gauquelin heredity study made in In each case the observed frequency typically 0. Answer to opening question: No. Global Horoscopes Michael Wackford Correlation , This paper concludes a 5-part review of horoscopy in the Polar Regions whose aim was to clear away some of the many misconceptions of circumpolar horoscopy, to examine the nature and viability of a number of house systems, and to establish which methods of house division can be successfully applied in the Polar Regions and therefore across the entire planet.
Only Equal, Campanus and Placidus deserve consideration. The first presents difficulties when the circumpolar ascendant reverses, the second pretends that all skies are as witnessed at the equator, the last is the only quadrant system that can be applied in polar regions without sacrificing astronomical and astrological integrity. But it can still fail to give twelve unambiguous cusps. The case for neo-astrological causalities being present in the Gauquelins' work is greatly strengthened' by consideration of the total corpus of their researches.
And this context increases the scientific importance and priority their work should be accorded, while also adding to the over-all extraordinariness of their anomalies. On the other hand, the Gauquelin and Eysenck work though presenting, I think, real and important anomalies still represents an extraordinary set of claims for which commensurate proof has not yet been obtained. The work is important and should be encouraged.
But we need independent replications and the elimination of more "normal" alternative explanations, before neoastrology can gain scientific acceptance. And that is as it should be. True or false, the answer lies in continued investigation and more studies. The present study re-analyses by computer all the profession and heredity data published in 12 volumes by the Gauquelin laboratory during The computer results confirmed the original Gauquelin results, which were based on hand calculations done years ago, but were somewhat lower in significance due to inadvertent bias in the hand calculations when interpolating from tables.
Several new analyses are described which lead to a better understanding of planetary effects, as follows. The area of maximum influence existed almost uniformly throughout sectors 1 and 4 with a fairly marked decrease beyond both boundaries; by comparison the influence of the opposite sectors seems very small.
Sectors 1 and 4 were found to be independent and not harmonics of each other. For the heredity data the zone size for maximum effect was found to be that of the plus zones previously used. If a parent was born with one planet in plus zones there was no significant tendency for the child to be born with another planet in or out of plus zones. Overall the study demonstrates that computers are necessary to avoid human bias and to perform investigations far too complex to be undertaken by hand.
Franz Stark APP , 4. A questionnaire listing five character types was completed by persons obtained via an astrology magazine, friends, and addresses chosen at random from the telephone directory. The respondent had to give their birth data and say if they knew their horoscope, and with another person they each had to tick which types the respondent belonged to.
Each type was described by eight Gauquelin planetary trait words. For example Type 2 was "agreeable, compromising, good taste, charming, tries to please, flexible, diplomatic, evasive" Venus , and Type 3 was "active, impatient, combative, passionate, energetic, direct, self-willed, indefatigable" Mars. Compared with the typical correlation of 0. Comment: In APP 5. Replication: In APP 5. This time the sample size was persons. The results were less consistent than before two were negative , and fewer were significant. Nevertheless the Gauquelin effect continues to show up.
Replication: In APP 6. When an allowance was made for the number of tests, no result was significant the highest correlation was 0. When respondents were allowed to select individual traits as well as whole types, they often ticked only flattering traits and avoided ticking any type, or they ticked all five types. Conclusion: the questionnaire was not good enough. It needed improvement and then much validation with various groups of people. This will be a slow process, but if we want an efficient tool for testing Gauquelin effects, it has to be done. The author's previous research with Gauquelin data confirmed the existence of planetary effects for eminent professionals.
However, the present research casts doubt on Gauquelin's physical explanation. Furthermore the effect did not diminish during Mars-Sun conjunctions. Nor did the planetary effect for eminent professionals correlate with geomagnetic activity. It seems that Gauquelin's positive results with geomagnetism are due to random oscillations. However, the number of post births was insufficient for a definite conclusion.
In the light of these results, Gauquelin's midwife hypothesis seems to be untenable, in which case an interpretation of planetary effects in terms of physics and physiology must be replaced by something else. Using the official birth-time records of eminent physicians, the author has tried to replicate the Gauquelin effect. As one of the data sources for the present study had already been used by the Gauquelins themselves, comparisons could be made during the gathering and the data processing for ensuring a correct replication study.
The initial Gauquelin data were also rechecked and corrected when necessary, but essentially their degree of significance remained the same. The new Muller data showed results in the expected direction for Mars, but not for Jupiter and Saturn. A subsample of particularly renowned physicians increased the significance of the Mars result. For Saturn, the highest result was observed with French physicians. Therefore overall the present study confirms the Gauquelin observations. Michel's passing away left many problems unresolved.
They need adequate scrutiny now if we want to do justice to his remarkable experimental intuition. They are the Heredity Hypothesis why did a larger sample fail to bring forth the previously obtained results , the Character Traits Hypothesis why did Michel's and Suitbert's results disagree , and aspect and zodiac sign investigations new tests by computer-wise astrologers seem positive but erroneous statistics and astronomical and demographic artifacts explain fully the assumed astrological results.
The factors tested were planets in signs factors , planets in houses factors , aspects factors , three-planet formations factors , harmonic aspects factors , midpoints factors , and planetary qualities factors such as speed, retrogradation, and distance. The statistical significance of each result was determined by a z-test using expected values based on at least four control charts generated within 2. Despite the large number of factors only one replicated sufficiently to suggest a testable hypothesis, namely that eminent professionals will have an excess of easy oppositions and kites involving the ascendant and any of the planets.
Interestingly, although the Gauquelin effect in key sectors was included with the relevant factors, the Gauquelin effect did not emerge as strongly as I had expected although it did emerge , no doubt because the effect is very specific to certain planet and profession combinations that would not have been singled out in my approach. This suggests that the Gauquelin effect may not be more dramatic than anything else, but came about because it was spotted early and then pursued relentlessly.
Nevertheless, if some of the other factors involve effects similar in magnitude to the Gauquelin effect, it seems unlikely that they would all escape detection in my tests. I believe there is a need for more study of the structure of the Gauquelin results and their implications for astrology. Although M. Gauquelin described inter-relations between the planets Mars, Jupiter and Saturn deduced from trait-word analysis, it never became a central part of his theory.
Here I want to make this inter planetary structure [ie the similarities and differences between planetary trait words] the starting point of speculations instead of marginalizing it as at present. In previous issues of this journal, I have expressed my regret that Graham Douglas does not go on to prove the various hypotheses he likes to formulate. Without any confrontation with external realities, his idea of "semantic space" and of "inter-planetary structure" risks to remain sterile. Piling up a succession of brilliant ideas on these never verified hypotheses is like building castles in the sand or houses of cards.
Did you ever hear about the historical discussion that kept the best theologians in France occupied for months around the abstract problem: To what gender do angels belong? The final answer to this problem is said to have been: Angels belong to the male gender, the better one of course! But then the unsolvable objection arose: Why do the most respectable religious painters represent angels with the face and the garb of a woman? A quite unanswerable objection! That's what you risk when you rely on theories and never on tangible facts for confirming their adequacy.
The Gauquelin effect should increase with increased birth time precision. The data, however, do not bear this out, on the contrary, the effect even tends to diminish with better birth time recordings, at least from AD onwards. The expected positive effect might have been overridden by psychological-sociological variables depressing the effect and enhancing birth record precision at the same time. Until now, however, such intervening variables remain enigmatic. The Gauquelin findings are just as puzzling for astrology eg no link with the Sun as they are for science eg no link with physical variables.
But they are consistent with artifacts due to attribution social effects. The mean planetary effect size is larger on desirable days easily obtained by faking than on undesirable days nobody would fake to get one , 0. Faked times do not need to be precise, which explains why, contrary to expectation, effect sizes increase with decreasing birth time precision.
The parents and children from the first Gauquelin heredity experiment show heredity effect sizes for children that are greater for same-sex parents mean 0. Social effects also explain why planetary effects seem to disappear in births after Gauquelin suggested this was because the births had been upset by medical intervention.
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But the modern demand for official documentation would necessarily prevent faking. The idea that faking is being prevented is more plausible than the idea that all hospitals, all doctors and all midwives are intervening in all births. Nevertheless we cannot conclude that social effects explain Gauquelin's puzzling findings. We can do this only if planetary effects disappear under conditions where social effects are absent, as when parents are excluded from the birth reporting process and the child is ignorant of its birth planets.
Dean's requirement that superstitious beliefs be stronger in rural areas is not supported by the results for 7, French professionals. On Christian feast days the excess births for 2, priests and monks was not significantly more than for 15, professionals. Superstition declined steadily from to but the avoidance of unlucky days etc did not, nor did planetary effects, therefore avoidance is not a valid measure of belief.
A total of , hospital births in showed a strong midnight avoidance, disconfirming any link with witches. Faking dates and faking astrology seems more evil and more difficult than faking just one, so planetary effects should be weaker on faked days, not stronger. Adding other planets should increase the correlation with avoidances due to the extra information but it does not.
We now know that Dean-type explanations of planetary effects are untenable. Reply by Dean in Correlation , Astrological beliefs were once regarded by the elite as part of science and do not qualify as superstition. The avoidance was only of the witching minute , not the witching hour, so it was to avoid ambiguity, not witches. Why should adding non-relevant planets provide extra information? Ertel's points ignore crucial results such as my heredity findings, my cluster analyses, and the astonishingly close match to every one of the many Gauquelin puzzles.
Counter-reply by Ertel in the same issue pages concludes that Dean continues "to propagate views This study from the University of Montana explores the public acceptance of astrology, and tests the validity and usefulness of chart interpretations. The students most receptive to astrology were those not majoring in science or business, who agreed that traditional counselling was valid, and whose parents and friends were receptive to astrology. In Part 2 twelve subjects working blind had to pick their own from three chart interpretations based on date, time, and place of birth.
The authentic chart interpretation was rated 1st, 2nd, 3rd by 4, 6, 2 subjects vs 4, 4, 4 expected by chance. Neither difference was significant although slightly in the right direction. In Part 3 each of the twelve subjects was given a one-hour oral reading of their own chart followed by a questionnaire to determine its usefulness. Nine subjects rated the reading as very accurate, increasing their confidence in the validity of astrology, and rated chart interpretation as very useful in counselling, The other three rated the reading as moderately accurate and chart interpretation as moderately useful in counselling.
The researchers noted that the reading was highly effective in eliciting personal and other information from the subject, more than could be obtained in a conventional interview. Conclusion: chart readings are a useful but not necessarily accurate counselling tool. Most important, the counselling relationship rests not on the accuracy of the reading but on the counselling skill of the person doing the reading.
Four horoscopes dentist, businessman, painter, engineer were matched to their owner's profession by 19 members of the NGPA, the Dutch Society of Practising Astrologers. Of the 19 responses, 7 had all 4 correct vs 0. However, the horoscopes had been provided some years previously by a professional astrologer, and it was suspected that they had been selected because they closely fitted what the average textbook said. For example the businessman had Sun and Mercury in 2nd house, indicating a life dealing with money.
So it was decided to repeat the test with the same NGPA members using a new unselected horoscope for each of the four professions. This time nobody had 4 correct matches, and not many had 2 correct. Indeed, the outcome was so disappointing that the exact numbers were not recorded. The result illustrates the need to avoid bias due to prior selection. To test whether astrologers using the whole chart can predict E extraversion and N emotionality in ordinary people, the charts of subjects with extreme scores on the Eysenck Personality Inventory were judged by 45 astrologers from beginners to recognised experts.
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The average pair of opposite extremes was equivalent to the two most extreme persons in a random sample of fifteen adults. This compares with the usual approach in experimental psychology which at best is to take the two most extreme persons in a random sample of three. Allowing 5 minutes per judgement the test required a whole week of evenings to complete and was thus the largest that astrologers were likely to tolerate. All charts were computer calculated by ACS in the style preferred by each astrologer with a choice of several house systems, midpoints, asteroids, and Hindu sidereal with navamsa.
As a control another 45 astrologers made the same judgements by simply guessing. The result was judgements each of E and N, and the same number of control judgements. For both E and N the agreement among astrologers was very poor mean kappa 0. Distribution of hits. Above each plot black circles indicate the equivalent hit rate for judgements made with high, medium and low confidence. Other things being equal, the hit rate should improve as confidence increases, especially as each astrologer had complete freedom to take into account all relevant factors ranging from birth time uncertainty to uncertainties in interpretation.
But judgements made with high confidence were no better than those made with low confidence. Factors such as technique, experience, personality, gender, use of intuition, and birth data accuracy made no difference. On average each astrologer had 10 years of experience and spent 5 minutes on each judgement. Palmistry avoids the problem of uncertain birth times, so might palmists perform better than astrologers?
This was addressed by a sub-test in which audiences of astrologers or palmists had to make 16 E and 15 N judgements of the charts and hands both projected as 35 mm slides of extreme scorers. As in the main test the average time per judgement was about 5 minutes. The number of judgements was too small to tell if there was a genuine difference, especially as neither group performed better than chance. Synthesis was largely ignored, and audiences were swayed in their judgements by the presence or obsence of relatively few factors such as this aspect or that line.
They usually differed on what was relevant, so disagreement was the rule. Thus it was not uncommon for half the audience to vote one way and the other half to vote the other way. This disagreement had no evident effect on their faith in astrology or palmistry. Do astrologers perform better than cold readers?
As it happens an out-of-practice student of cold reading was present at one of the early sub-tests and was in the worst possible position at the back of the room. He noticed that when I announced the judgements to be made, I tended to lower my eyes and voice during the correct judgement which of course I knew in advance as if trying to hide it. After this I took precautions to prevent cues.
The astrologer concerned with maximising client satisfaction could therefore do worse than abandon astrology but not of course the pretence of astrology in favour of cold reading. The original study by Shawn Carlson appeared in Nature , , at which time it was the largest study of its kind and was notable for involving an advisory panel of three prominent NCGR astrologers to ensure that the study was fair, and double-blind conditions to avoid any possibility of bias.
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In view of the controversy it created, the following abstract includes information kindly provided by Carlson in that is not in the APP abstract or in the original paper. The study involved three different tests as follows:. Subjects excluded those who strongly disbelieved in astrology, had previously had a chart constructed, or were under Roughly half were male and the mean age was 28, range Subjects could not be test subjects but could be controls, see below if their birth place, date and time were not documented and if their birth time was not recorded to better than 15 minutes.
The charts were calculated by two astrologers using a Digicomp DR70 [a dedicated chart-calculating computer introduced in the s before PCs became popular], and the interpretations were individually typed by a total of 28 experienced astrologers selected by the advisory panel for competence and a background in psychology. Each interpretation was about words on pages supplied by Carlson that had pre-printed headings typical of an astrology reading personality, relationships, career, education, current situation to ensure uniformity of content and length.
So each was representative of the best US professional practice. To avoid give-away clues, each interpretation avoided astrological terms and age indications. In addition, control subjects same Sun sign as the actual subjects but differing in age by at least 3 years were given the same task.
Usable responses were received from 83 subjects and 94 controls. One was their authentic profile, the other two were chosen at random from other subjects of the same sex. The same 3 profiles were also given to control subjects chosen at random and of the same sex as the test subjects. The subjects had to be matched for sex because the CPI contains scales that discriminate between the sexes. The CPI has 18 scales, 3 of which well-being, good impression, communality are designed to detect faking, and the rest provide scores on personality dimensions such as dominance, sociability, self-control, responsibility, achievement, and femininity.
The CPI was used in preference to other personality inventories because its scales were judged by the advising astrologers to be closest to what is discernible in a chart. It had also been extensively researched. Unfortunately the subjects had not been advised in advance of this second test, most were not particularly interested in the CPI, and more than half failed to respond.
Given the difficulty of understanding a graph rather than readable text, these results are perhaps unsurprising. One was the authentic profile for the chart subject, the other two were chosen at random from other subjects of the same sex. Each astrologer also received a copy of the CPI interpretation manual that explained the meaning and interpretation of each of the 18 CPI scales.
They then rated the fit between each profile and chart on a scale of Because all astrologers had some background in psychology nearly all claimed to have some formal training in psychology, average 3 years, three were professional psychologists, and most claimed to have some experience with the California Psychological Inventory , this test should have been easier than it was for the subjects.
Nevertheless, of charts sent out, only were returned.
So even though the panel was satisfied that the tests were fair, the results were at chance level and still less than the Despite its popularity, most of the validity coefficients for single scales are low, while collectively the scales are both too complex and too limited to be a good test of astrology.
Its acceptance by the advising astrologers suggests they had little training in psychology. Carlson's study cannot therefore be considered as a valid test of astrology. In response to Guy de Penguern's claim that he could determine health problems from the birth chart, I submitted to him cases with birth data and approximate birth time, each with the date sometimes also the time of death.
The cases were taken from the register of a Paris hospital. But for 51 cases he predicted more cancer than expected by chance among non-cancer cases than among cancer cases, which was in the wrong direction. I must thank Guy de Penguern for having had the patience and dedication to thoroughly perform this test. It brings a clarification that had to be done. You recently broadcast a tacky segment on astrology that shows you know nothing about it.
The astrology you find impossible to accept newspaper horoscopes is the same astrology that genuine astrologers refuse to accept. There is a large body of evidence suggesting that genuine astrology cannot be dismissed. Gauquelin's Mars effect, Vernon Clark's matching experiments, John Nelson's radio studies, Frank Brown's work on oysters, to mention only a few. But try it for yourself. Choose two people you know, send me their birth data, and I will send you a four-page psychological analysis without knowing their names or even seeing them.
Since people with fixed opinions are rarely receptive to contrary evidence, I will understand if I do not hear from you. Of the four examples of evidence, three were known at the time but evidently not by the author to rest on artifacts, and the fourth Gauquelin requires further work before artifacts can be disregarded. Main conclusions: 1 Astrologers think they can judge the quality of well designed scientific studies, and carry out difficult matching tests. Apparently they cannot, but neither can any untrained person.
Another demerit point for astrologers. They are wrong, because clients appear just as happy with delineations from wrong charts. Six astrologers matched 23 birth charts to comprehensive case files, including photographs and a 7-page item questionnaire devised by them that covered hobbies, interests, school grades, best and worst subjects, talents, vocational interests, past and present jobs, education and occupation of parents, type of neighbourhood where they lived, relationship with parents and siblings, dates of deaths in family, dates of moves across the country, birth defects, disfiguring injuries, deviant behaviour, convictions, whether a victim of serious crime, honesty, main personal problems, religious beliefs, health problems, fondness for travel, phobias, dislikes, attitude to authority, sexual relationships, loyalty, favourite colours, ideal living situation, punctuality, perseverance, a night or day person, strengths and weaknesses of best friend, goals in life, height, weight, hair colour, eye colour, skin colour, and race.
Each question was open-ended rather than forced-choice, because the astrologers felt this better represented everyday astrological practice. The charts were of native Americans 4 men, 19 women aged years. Altogether the information provided was considerably more than would be involved in a typical consultation. Birth times were verified by birth records and in most cases were recorded with a precision of five minutes or better.
The mean accuracy, i.
The mean agreement between astrologers was 0. Accuracy was unrelated to confidence or to birth-time precision.
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In a follow-up study, five groups of astrologers each matched a subset of 5 charts, so that collectively all 23 charts were matched. The mean accuracy was Although the astrologers had collaborated to make the experiment as fair as possible, the negative findings had no effect on their belief in the validity of astrology. The predictive qualities of Vedic astrology were tested using 20 pairs of birth data.
One of each pair was a real person who had died in a road accident. The other was a fictitious person who acted as a control. In each pair the birth place was the same, and the birth dates were no more than three months apart, as were the death dates. Using Vedic astrology, a form of astrology widely applied in India, the author working blind attempted to identify the genuine accidental death.
The result was 11 hits and 9 misses, which is not significantly different from the 10 expected by chance. In May the Dutch daily newspaper Algemeen Dagblad published an article by Martin Boot, a former astrologer, who argued that astrologers cannot predict. In response the astrologer Rene Jelsma claimed "astrologers can really predict". So I decided to resolve this difference of opinion by inviting astrologers to take part in a test. All participants would receive the birth date, time and place of seven anonymous subjects.
They would also receive the subjects' responses to a questionnaire devised by the participants. More than 70 astrologers showed interest, sending in an average of ten questions that I synthesised into a list of 25 that covered education, vocation, hobbies, interests, main goals, personality, relationships, health, religion, etc. I also asked for dates of important events, and added 24 multiple choice questions taken from the Berkeley Personality Profile.
Eight experienced astrologers checked the result and had no major objections. At their suggestion I added three multiple choice questions covering family background. The seven subjects were born in the Netherlands during with birth data supported by birth certificates. Subjects with an Ascendant near a cusp so a few minutes difference in birth time could change its sign were excluded. As a precaution, the questionnaire and list of birth data were sent to Dutch skeptics who tried to find the matching pairs.
Although one scored three hits, there was no reason to suppose that any of the pairs could be identified by using hidden clues. Of the 44 astrologers who took the test, at least half had read more than one hundred charts and were very experienced, while one-third were frequently paid for their services. One quarter were members of the Dutch Society of Practising Astrologers.
In fact the best astrologer scored only three hits. Half scored no hits, and the average score was 0. There was no evidence that the most experienced astrologers did any better than beginners. I asked the astrologers what factors might be responsible for the disappointing results. They pointed out that the outer planet positions were very similar nevertheless the charts showed many differences , as were some of the questionnaire replies for example all subjects claimed to be reliable workers, but again there were many more differences than similarities , and maybe the questions were not always answered truthfully but why should anyone lie about their hobbies or the date of their wedding?
Some participants felt they did not receive enough information, but nearly all had received more than they had asked for. So these arguments are unconvincing. Even if all responses including birth data were totally false, this would not explain why the astrologers failed to show mutual agreement. Some leading Dutch astrologers explained the results by resorting to the paranormal. They claimed that astrologers can get hits only by using their intuition or by tuning in to the cosmic order, which can be done only during authentic consultations.
As soon as anyone interferes by selecting clients or asking questions, this ability disappears. But clearly the participants would not agree with this view, otherwise they would not have participated. Furthermore their confidence presumably included their confidence in intuition, whose role they would have maximised by their method of working.
So the results allow no reason to suppose that astrology depends on paranormal influences. Comment In this test the astrologers were offered such an enormous amount of information that solving the puzzle was unlikely, yet that was precisely the situation they requested. So their panicky explanations are unnecessary. They simply overrated their ability. Rudolf Smit Correlation , If you wish to upset the law that all crows are black, you must not seek to show that no crows are; it is enough to prove one single crow to be white.
Leo Knegt was one of the Netherland's most eminent astrologers. He was tested in a blind trial by the lawyer Cornelis Van Rossem, who gave him the birth data and gender and nothing else of ten subjects selected for precise birth times, distinct characteristics, and the availability of someone who knew them well. Knegt had to describe characteristics that could be verified, and had to avoid anything that was general, ambiguous, or hard to verify.
In some cases Knegt was asked to focus on particular issues such as career, health, or whether the subject had a very unusual character trait. As a precaution, unknown to Knegt, Van Rossem had altered the birth co-ordinates very slightly, which made no significant change to the chart but prevented identification of the registry office and therefore identification of the subjects by inspection of registry office records. In his published results Twee Occulte Problemen The Hague , Van Rossem reproduces Knegt's ten readings in columns side by side with his own comments and those of the independent assessor.